1) post about your two “muddiest points,” that is, concepts or topics in the chapter that you find challenging to understand. Muddiest Points: Select two concepts that you found challenging to understand in Chapter 5. Define them and say what is challenging about them. If you did not find any concepts challenges, select two and define them in your own words.1) First concept2) Second conceptChapter 5, pp.117-132 – types of measurement and reliability:1) What is the difference between self-report and observational measures?2) What is the difference between categorical and quantitative variables?3) Briefly explain the characteristics of ordinal, interval, and ratio scale variables.4) Reliability is about consistency. Define the three kinds of reliability, using the word “consistent” in each of your definitions.5) How can a scatterplot be used to demonstrate reliability? (What does high reliability look like?)6) How can the correlation coefficient be used to demonstrate reliability?Chapter 5, pp. 132-142 – five subtypes of construct validity: face validity, content validity, criterion validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity.7) All five are different ways that we can test the construct validity of our measurements. Which two are subjective, and which three rely on empirical data? What does your text mean when they say two are “subjective?”8) How are reliability and validity be related, that is, can a measure be reliable but not valid? Can it be valid but not reliable?9) In which section of a journal article will you usually find measurement reliability and validity information?PLEASE NOTE THAT PDF IS IN REVERSE ORDER, SO START ON LAST PAGE AND SCROLL UP!!!