Assignment 2: Current Events and U.S. Diplomacy
Due Week 9 and worth 175 points
This paper will be a revised and expanded version of the first research paper. Based on your instructors feedback you will first revise the first paper.
Write three-to-four (3-4) new pages that address the following:
To help you understand this assignment further the following description and examples may be useful.
Step 1:Define doctrine and identify why a president would want to announce one.
A doctrine is an ideological platform that a president uses to advance a policy towards a country or region in order to accomplish foreign policy goals for the United States so you will need to expand on this theme.
Refer back to Assignment 1 and build on whatever doctrine you wrote about then. Say for example you selected the Truman Doctrine. Therefore this is the only thing you will write about in Assignment 2 step 1.
Step 2:Select one country you wrote about in Assignment 1 and describe the Cold War relationship that existed between it and the U.S.
Before the presidential doctrine was announced. In the case of Truman you would pick either the Soviet Union Greece or Iran since all three were affected by his doctrine. If you are writing about the Eisenhower Doctrine you would choose Lebanon or Egypt; if you wrote about the Kennedy Doctrine you would have write about Cuba or Vietnam; if your wrote about the Nixon Doctrine you would choose either Vietnam Saudi Arabia or Iran; if you chose Carter you would select either Iran or Afghanistan; and if you wrote about the Reagan Doctrine you would select Nicaragua Angola Russia or Afghanistan (although there were several others).
Step 3:Describe what effect the presidential doctrine you chose has had on regional or global affairs since it was announced during the Cold War.
That is how did the doctrine change the status quo regionally or globally after it was announced by the U.S.? What happened in Western Europe after the Truman Doctrine was announced? What happened in the Middle East after the Eisenhower Doctrine was announced? What happened with Cuba or Vietnam after Kennedy offered up his doctrine of flexible response? What happened in Southeast Asia or the Persian Gulf after the Nixon Doctrine went in effect? What happened in the Middle East after the Carter Doctrine was announced? What happened in Central America or Africa or the Middle East after Reagan announced his doctrine?
Step 4:Refer back to the country you selected in step two and describe the relationship that currently exists between the U.S. and that country.
How has the relationship changed between the U.S. and that country since the doctrine was announced?
Step 5:Evaluate whether or not the presidential doctrine had had the intended effect of altering the behavior of the one country you selected in section (2) above since the doctrine was first announced.
Your assignment must:
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
According to Norton Sheriff Et al (2011) presidentialdoctrines are basically the attitudes stances or attitudes for The UnitedStates of America foreign affairs plan by presidents. However most of thesepresidential doctrines were related to cold war. After the cold war a leadingbasis during President Kennedy years there was a need to cover communism atany cost. Kennedy called upon for military unison and strength to curbcommunism. Another main theme in this doctrine was basically to controlinternational system events simply because the United States of America had thepower and ability to do so.
In addition the Kennedy Doctrine was fundamentally anextension of the foreign policy privileges of the earlier presidencies of HarryS. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower. All these presidents foreign policiesrotated around communism threats including the means that would be used tocover up the spread of it by the United States.
According toMcCormick (1995) The Eisenhower Doctrine concentrated upon providing botheconomic and military support to nations fighting communism within the MiddleEast and by aggregating the trade flow into Latin America from the UnitedStates while the Truman Doctrine concentrated on the repression of communism byoffering support to nations repelling communism in Europe. On the other hand The Kennedy Doctrine wasgrounded on similar goals but was extra apprehensive with communism spreadingand Soviet inspiration in Latin America after the Cuban upheaval that got FidelCastro to authority in the 1950s under Eisenhower.
After Fidel Castro took power in Cuba the relationshipbetween Cuba and the United States of America the relationship between the twonations started deteriorating reaching to a climax when President Dwight D.Eisenhower closed severs diplomatic relations and the American embassy that wassituated in Havana Cuba (Domnguez 1997). However this was a great signal toCuba that America was now ready to take extreme actions against Castrosregime which was seen by the officials from the United States to be a lodgmentof communism within the western hemisphere.
After a series of increasing conflicts between UnitedStates and Cuban governments they later parted and that is the time that FidelCastro turned for assistance from the United States ultimate enemy and rivalthe Soviet Union. However the alliance between Cuba and Soviet Union was themain reason that America saw Castro threat to their security and that wasevident during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Additionally Che Guevara Castroand other influential leaders encouraged and supported revolt all throughAfrica and Latin America (Domnguez 1997).
Castro’s regime by 1960 had grabbed private landstate-owned hundreds of private companies comprising numerous local affiliatesof U.S. organizations and overtaxed United States of American products thatUnited States exports were split in just two years. This greatly affected theUnited States economy and thats why President Eisenhower Government reacted byexecuting trade limitations on everything excluding medical supplies and food.
According to Litwak (2000) on Feb. 7 1962 PresidentKennedy issued the perpetual restriction this was after he shipped in 1200cigars from Cuba. Within several years Cubas economy was deteriorating sinceAmerica was not trading with them and due to the fact that they always dependedon products made in America. Decrease in food consumption televisions andTelephones were not available importing cars from America was very hard henceaffected their economy as they observed their pre-restricted vehicles erodeinto rattletraps. The relationship between the United States of America andCuban governments can be summarized by just a few words Great enemies simplybecause Cuban government had become too anti-American to be trusted.
For more than five decades or bad relationship PresidentBarack Obama of the United States and Cuban President Raul Castro officiallyannounce that the both governments would reinstate complete diplomatic onDecember 2014. This was made successful by the secret talks between the Cubanand United States officials that took at least eighteen months; this wasfollowed by release of foreign prisoners from both countries by both countries.On July 2015 both nations in each other’scapitals they revived theirembassies successfully reinstating full diplomatic relations.
On this month Jan 2016 trade and new travel regulationswere legislated that permit United States travelers to officially visit Cubadeprived of attaining a government license first. Travellers will be permittedto spend money on both countries and also airlines will be allowed to offer thecountry services. The new rules will favor economic transactions by removingeconomic sanctions.
Although Cuba had remained strong and hence resisted theUnited States within a very tough and long period of time President Kennedysdoctrine dealt with this case strongly. His statesmanship skills led to aremarkable success of America over Cuba rebellion. The economy in the United Statesimproved as the Cuban economy deteriorated due to retaliatory restriction thatwas executed on Cuban people who were already suffering.
According to Wright (2001) after the humanitarian andcultural relationship between the people of United States and Cuban people wasoutlawed the people of Cuban continued to suffer as United States curtailedthe trade between the two nations lack of enough food poor medical servicesdeteriorated their health. On the other hand the successful Cuban missilecrisis in 1977 weaken the Cuban government making the United States remainstrong and tough to the poor Cuba.
However it is clear that the two nations would benefitfrom trading together the trade restrictions did not have a great impact tothe entrenched government of Cuba and it harmed the innocent citizens of Cubawhile the embedded bureaucrats uphold normal living standards as the citizensof Cuba continue to suffer.
Cuba had become one of great United States territorialimportance American government had to work faster so as to invade and capturetheir territories and hence this remains the main reason as to why Kennedysdoctrine was executed. Communism that was faster spreading within the LatinAmerica was basically a threat to the United States simply because it wouldautomatically tear apart a crucial influence sphere in the Caribbean (Freedman2000).
Kennedys government feared that Cuba would grow strongfrom the support they got from Soviet Union and thus communism regime wouldgradually expand and grow strong even within the neighboring nations. So themain aim of this doctrine was for the United States to basically expand itsterritories to Cuba.
DomnguezJ. I. (1997). USCubanRelations: From the Cold War to the Colder War.Journal of InteramericanStudies and World Affairs39(3) 49-75.
FreedmanL. (2000).Kennedy’s Wars: Berlin Cuba Laos and Vietnam. OxfordUniversity Press USA.
LitwakR. (2000).Rogue states and US foreign policy: containment after the ColdWar. Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
McCormickT. J. (1995).America’s half-century: United States foreign policy in thecold war and after. JHU Press.
NortonM. B. Sheriff C. Blight D. W. & Chudacoff H. (2011).A Peopleand a Nation: A History of the United States Volume II: Since 1865(Vol.2). Cengage Learning.
WrightT. C. (2001).Latin America in the era of the Cuban Revolution. GreenwoodPublishing Group.