I’m studying for my Biology class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?Hey guys, I really need help with these 2 assignments. They go together so its technically one assignment. Below is just some of the info you will need so you can complete the assignments. You can get a good idea of what you will be doing, but I will give my info so you can go in and complete the assignment yourself and see all the study materials. This lab explores the anatomy of a fetal pig. Identity and function of key structures are outlined.Just as in the squid dissection, you will begin by exploring the external anatomy of the pig. Locate the nose, nostrils, mouth, tongue, eyes, ears, front and hind limbs, tail, and umbilical cord. Depending on the age and size of your pig, you may see a thin, transparent layer of skin or body hair or a combination of skin and body hair. Prior to birth, hair develops and the skin begins to shed. Take a look at the pig and determine its sex by looking for the presence of two scrotal sacs beneath the anal opening. If the scrotal sacs are present, your pig is male. Another morphological feature that can be used to determine sex, is the urogenital orifice (opening). The urogenital orifice in males will be posterior to the umbilical cord, whereas in females it will be ventral to the anal opening.In order to examine the internal anatomy of the pig, the specimen needs to be ventral side up. The first cut should begin at the umbilical cord. A shallow cut is made along the midsagittal line all the way to the neck. This cut will extend through the abdominal skin and muscles. After completing this midsagittal cut, a “U” shaped cut is made around the umbilical cord and neck.Now that we have access to the internal body cavity, you should be able to locate some key structures. At the anterior end of the midsagittal cut (in the chest area), you should be able to see the sternum and ribs of the ribcage. The diaphragm, which divides the coelom into thoracic and abdominal cavities, is located at the bottom of the ribcage. Peeling open the sternum not only reveals the diaphragm, but also the heart and lungs. See if you can locate both the heart and the lungs. The lungs connect to the nostrils, where air is taken in. This air moves from the nostrils through the nasal passages, pharynx, glottis, and larynx before reaching the lungs. The lung is composed of many blood vessels, cells, and alveoli (air sacs).As you examine the heart, you may notice a thin, transparent layer surrounding the heart. This is the pericardial membrane. Now, examine the abdominal cavity. A thin, transparent membrane, called the peritoneum, covers the organs of this cavity. Reexamine the umbilical cord, this time searching for the umbilical vein that leads from the umbilical cord anteriorly to the liver. The umbilical vein is responsible for transporting oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus. Oxygenated blood is transported from this vein into the posterior vena cava, where it mixes with deoxygenated blood and moves to the heart for redistribution in the body. Blood returns to the placenta via the umbilical arteries for re-oxygenation. At birth, the umbilical vein and arteries are severed and grow shut, establishing final circulation patterns. Locate the liver. Then, search for the stomach, which should be located under the left side of the liver. We remove the stomach and examine it using the dissecting microscope. First, the external anatomy of the stomach is examined, then it is cut open and any contents found within are emptied. Once the stomach is empty, look for rugae (folds) within the stomach. The rugae increase the surface area of the stomach and function in food digestion. Apply it: Why would increased surface area be beneficial for food digestion?When the stomach was removed from the pig, the small intestine was severed from it. Most food digestion and nutrition absorption occur in the small intestine. The small intestine is composed of three parts: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, but these parts are indistinguishable external. The duodenum of the small intestine contains enzymes and bile. The enzymes and bile are secreted from the pancreas (c-shaped, yellow-grey organ) and gallbladder (tear-shaped, green-grey organ). See if you can locate the pancreas and gallbladder, located next to the duodenum and under the liver, respectively. From the duodenum, food passes to the jejunum and ileum of the small intestine for final nutrient absorption.
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